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Word formation – FCE

Read the text below first. For questions 17 – 24 use the word that is given in capital letters at the end of the lines to form words that fit in the gaps in the same line. The first example (0) is done for you. Let’s get started on Word Formation:

We’re going to work through this exercise together. If you already know the word because it sounds good, then you can think about inserting that word, but in order to make sure we have the right word it is very important to solve the word using a grammatical analysis i.e., adjective to adverb, missing negative prefix or suffix, convert word to noun etc. We will go through each of the examples together using an inductive method to push you into deciding the correct answer. Let’s get started!

New Zealand’s traditional dance: The Haka

Watching the Haka for the first time will surely be a (0) _______ experience. Not many have seen such a dance let alone see it up close in (17) _______. The Haka, for New Zealanders is the (18) _______ war dance that is traditionally performed before important rugby matches involving the New Zealand national rugby team, the All Blacks.

Many spectators and fans of the sport of rugby have (19) _______ the Haka as exhilarating, moving and soul-touching. Most can’t describe it. There’s something truly inspirational seeing elite sportsmen pour their heart and soul out in to giving the dance of their life.

The Haka itself (20) _______ from New Zealand’s ancient Maori culture and is a ceremonial dance or challenge. The Haka has long been practiced as a war dance, but according to the Karetu, the Haka has been “erroneously (21) _______ by generations of uninformed as “war dances'”, whereas Māori mythology places haka as the dance “about the celebration of life”. This is adamant in the fact that the Haka (22) _______ does embrace life and is about respect, because the Haka is commonly performed during important cultural exchanges, funerals, weddings and other such events.

Most would presume that the Haka is only performed at rugby matches, but in reality, quite the contrary is (23) _______. Apart from said events (from above), there have been many instances in the past during basketball matches, flash mobs, American football games and even roller derbies where the Haka was (24) _______.

The Haka has, and always will be, a beautiful and traditional Maori dance from New Zealand or Aotearoa, which in Maori means, the land of the long white cloud.

Words given

(0) FASCINATE(17) ACT(18) FAME(19) DESCRIPTION(20) ORIGINAL
(21) DEFINITION(22) CERTAINTY(23) TRUTH(24) EXECUTION
  1. The word given is “fascinate”. Fascinate is a verb. The word “experience” is a noun and only adjectives can modify nouns. We need to change the verb “fascinate” into an adjective. Remember, in English there many ways we can make an adjective, but the main forms are the -ed and -ing forms. E.g. tired, tiring; annoyed, annoying; surprised, surprising; fascinated, fascinating etc. The “ed” forms are also the past participles and can function as adjectives. Generally, the “ed” adjective forms are used to describe the entity itself and the “ing” forms are to describe the action or the description. “Experience” is not an entity, so we need “fascinating” and not “fascinated”.
Watching the Haka for the first time will surely be a (0) ________ experience. (FASCINATE)
  1. The last word before the space is “in”. “In” is a preposition and prepositions are usually followed by a noun/pronoun, so, therefore, we know we need a noun. “Act” is a verb and a noun. There are two forms to this noun with different meanings. We require the meaning of “state or process of acting or doing”. We know now that we need a noun. (Remember the rule: prepositions are followed by a noun or pronoun).
Not many have seen such a dance let alone see it up close in (17) ________. (ACT)
  1. “War dance” is a compound noun, so what word do we need to modify it? You guessed it: an adjective. “Fame” is a noun, so we need to convert it into an adjective. Here are some suffixes that make adjectives: –al, -ful, -ous, -ic, -ive etc. Which one sounds better: Famal? Famful? Famous? Famic? Famive? There’s no rule as to which suffix goes where, so, you need to write the suffixes down and decide which one sounds more natural. The same applies to making nouns, negatives, and adverbs.
The Haka, for New Zealanders, is the (18) ________ war dance that is… (FAME)

Cambridge First – Tutorial

  1. “Spectators and fans” is the subject of the sentence. “Have” is the verb, and its use is primarily to make “perfect forms”. When we’re talking about a past action whose nature or experience continues until the present moment, the present perfect is used. Present perfect = have/has + past participle. “Description” is the noun, so you need to convert this word to its verb form and then add “ed” to make the past participle. (If the infinitive already ends in “e”, then you only need to add “d” to make the past participle.
Many spectators and fans of the sport of rugby have (19) ____________ the Haka as exhilarating, moving and soul-touching. (DESCRIPTION)
  1. Remember, word order is normally “subject + verb + compliment”. The subject is “the Haka”, so what goes next? Secondly, “original” is an adjective and you need to turn it into a verb for it to function grammatically. Is “the Haka” singular or plural? If it’s singular, then the verb will need to be plural because the verb will be in third person singular.
The Haka itself (20) ____________ from New Zealand’s ancient Maori culture and is a ceremonial dance or challenge.(ORIGINAL)
  1. “The Haka” is the subject of the sentence and it is followed by the verbs “has been”. Have + been + participle = present perfect in the passive voice. As a rule, we use the passive when there is more focus on the action itself and not on who or what is performing the action. In this case, the action of “people being erroneous” about the Haka. So, we know we need a past participle to form the present perfect in the passive voice. “Definition” is the noun, so what is the verb? Once you have obtained the verb/infinitive, add “ed” to form the past participle (only add “d” with verbs already ending in “e”).
The Haka has long been practiced as a war dance, but according to the Karetu, the Haka has been “erroneously (21) _______________by generations of…(DEFINITION)
  1. “Does” is a verb, and what type of words modify verbs? Adverbs. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. Remember that, it’s important. We now know that we require an adverb. “Certainty” is the noun. What’s the adjective of “certainty”? It is “certain”. Most adverbs (especially Adverbs of Manner) can be constructed just by adding –ly to the adjective. I.e., happy – happily, brave – bravely, nice – nicely etc.
This is adamant in the fact that the Haka (22) _________ does embrace life and is about respect, because… (CERTAINTY)
  1. “Quite the contrary is…”. The last verb in this sentence is “is”. “Is” comes from the verb “to be”. Generally, we always use “to be” with adjectives to make sentences attributable, that is, to assign characteristics to people or things. I.e., I am tall, nice. She is great, fantastic etc. “Truth” is the noun, so you need the adjective, which is irregular.
Most would presume that the Haka is only performed at rugby matches, but in reality, quite the contrary is (23) _______. (TRUTH)
  1. The “Haka” is followed by an auxiliary verb (“was” – stemming from “to be”). We use “to be” to make sentences attributable, and we also use “to be” to form the passive voice in English. “Was” is the past simple, so obviously the word needed will be the past simple in the passive voice, which is: was/were + past participle. “Execution” is the nominal/noun form. You need to change the noun to a verb and then add “ed” to form the past participle (if the verb ends in “e”, just add “d”). Examples of past participles: showed, played, turned, founded etc.
Apart from said events (from above), there have been many instances in the past during basketball matches, flash mobs, American football games and even roller derbies where the Haka was (24)____________ . (EXECUTION)
Answers:
  1. fascinating (example)
  1. action
  2. famous
  3. described
  4. originates
  5. defined
  6. certainly
  7. true
  8. executed

Cambridge First

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