Numbers in English
Cardinal numbers –
In English and mathematics, cardinal numbers are the numbers themselves in plain and simple form: 4, 1 15, 1345, 66, 87, 18, 56, 3, etc. These numbers indicate how many elements there are in an assemblage. Generally, it’s best to write the letter form of the number in writing and not the numeral form.
- 76, 86 98, 1034, 54
- I have twenty-five children accompanying me.
- How many pigeons were on the window sill this morning? There were three.
- I know about four guys who can help you.
- He’s thirty-eight years old.
Ordinal numbers –
Ordinal numbers are used to designate a place in English, such as; third, second, first, eighth, twenty-first, seventh, one-hundredth, eighty-ninth etc. We use them to show the position of something or someone in a series.
- My brother came first (1st) in the running race.
- I bet him to second (2nd) place.
- I was ninety-ninth (99th) out of one hundred competitors, so not such a bad effort.
- According to my results, I placed twenty-fourth (24th) out of the thirty-three members.
- It’s not always about coming first (1st) place.
- Prizes will be allocated to first (1st), second (2nd) and third (3rd) placed competitors.
Roman numbers –
In English, we mainly use the standard Arabic numbers for mostly everything and more importantly, mathematics, although we do use Roman numbers also, for things such as; clocks numbers, naming historical events or statues, films, monuments etc. They are still used for historical reasons and they also look very aesthetic and classy.
- I = 1
- V= 5
- X = 10
- L = 50
- C = 100
- D = 500
- M = 1000
Upper case (capital letters) or lower case (small letters) can be used to form the numbers.
Usually, letters are ordered in decline of the order of value, i.e. ‘XV’ = 15 (10+5). Letters can be repeated to increase value, i.e. ‘XX’ = 20, ‘XX’ = 30. Letters cannot be repeated more than three times, so ‘XXXX’ is not used for 40. In this case, ‘XL’ = 40 (50 takeaway 10).
Down below, you can see a full elaboration on Roman numerals:
upper-case (capital letter)
lower-case (small letter)
Modal auxiliary verbs:
- Articles (a/an, the, zero article)
- Pronouns: subject, object and possessive
- Question tags
- English conditionals
- Interrogatives in English
- Phrasal verbs
- Prefixes and suffixes
- Reported and direct speech
- Punctuation: apostrophes, colons, semi-colons, commas, dashes, full stops, question marks, exclamation marks, and quotation marks
- The verb: “get”
- ‘Get’ vs. ‘go’ and ‘got’ vs. ‘gotten’
- Copular verbs
- Cleft sentences
- Subjunctive in English
- Vulgar and taboo in English
- Split infinitive
- Emphasis with inversion
- Gerunds in English
- To + infinitive
- Bare infinitive
- British and American spelling