Modal auxiliary verbs in English
Modal auxiliary verbs
To begin with, auxiliary verbs are basically “helping verbs” and there are two categories in English: main auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries.
Modal auxiliaries are helping verbs that connect with normal verbs (non-auxiliary verbs) to express a meaning, ask a question or negate.
Modal auxiliaries are not used with the main auxiliaries; to be, to have and to do, and do not make sense on their own, therefore, they must be connected with a normal verb in order to provide functional meaning.
Why are modal auxiliaries used?
In English, we use modal auxiliaries to express modality, that is, all things ranging from capacity, obligation, ability, permission, suggestions, recommendations – all possible situations.
Modal auxiliaries are followed by the bare infinitive
- Can: She can ride a bike.
- Could: Could you let me know.
- May: They may take issue with this.
- Might: I might see him on Friday.
- Will: I will not do it.
- Shall: Shall I get dressed?
- Should: You should not be so loud.
- Must: They mustn’t act like this.
- Need to*: We need to buy a car.
- Dare to*: We dared to confront the bully.
- Ought to*: She ought not to teach them.
No inflections with modal auxiliary verbs
Modal auxiliaries, unlike main auxiliaries, have no inflections, that is, they take the same form for all persons. A quick example:
|I will||We will|
|You will||You will|
|He/she/it will||They will|
- The modal auxiliary verb “will” does not change its form and has zero inflections, as can be seen from this chart.
Modal auxiliaries are followed by normal verbs
- I should take his advice.
- You won’t know it.
- They can leave now.
- You couldn’t see me.
The normal verbs are take, know, leave and see, all of which are also bare infinitives, that is, they’re not the form of a gerund or “to + infinitive”.