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Key word transformations – FCE

First, read the text. Then, for questions 25-30 complete the second sentence so that it is very similar or synonymous to the first sentence. You are not allowed to change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. The first example has been done for you. Let’s get started on key word transformations!

To complete this exercise correctly you need to follow our method. We are going to apply an inductive approach, that is, an approach or method that induces you to the answer by eliminating all the other incorrect answers. We use two fundamental steps to help you complete the second sentence:

  1. Read the second sentence. If there are words in the second sentence that also belong to the first sentence, then, omit those words in the first sentence. You no longer need them (by doing this, there will be fewer words that we need to modify).
  2. Grammar Analysis.

With regard to step 2 (Grammar Analysis), don’t worry if you don’t know all the grammar, because, in the exam, you will only be required to know the basics to complete the second sentence. Nevertheless, we are going to help you through this process so that you will be able to do the basics.

Example:

0. What type of sports do you like to play the most?

FAVOURITE

What ____________________ sport?

Example: is your favourite

In the exam, you must write the missing words in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.

0. (Example):

Step 1

  • Read the two sentences and the word given. Which words in the second sentence also belong to the first sentence? Answer: “what” and “sport”. So omit these words from the first sentence like this: What type of sports do you like to play the most? (It doesn’t matter if the words do not match exactly).
  • Words we have left to modify: type, of, do, you, like, to, play, the, most, favourite (word given).

Step 2 – Grammar Analysis

  • Word given is favourite. “Favourite” = adjective. There’s generally only one auxiliary verb used with adjectives which we use to make sentences attributable: to be.
  • The first sentence is in the present simple, so we will need the present simple.
  • Typical sentence structure in English is: subject + verb + object. “What” is the subject, and it will be followed by a verb.
  • “Favourite” is an adjective. And we know we need the verb “to be” in the third person singular (am/is(are) because the noun “sport” is singular. We need “is”.
  • The word “sports” belongs to the recipient (the person being asked the question), therefore we need a possessive adjective in second person to “possess” sports. That possessive adjective is “your”.
  • “Sport” in the second sentence is a noun. What modifies a noun? An adjective. “Favourite” is an adjective and must precede the noun.
  • Reread both sentences to make sure they:
  1. Have the same meaning.
  2. Are grammatically correct.
  3. You use between two and five words to complete the second sentence.

26. David and Jane don’t have a good relationship.

GET

David and Jane ______________ with each other.

Step 1

  • Read the two sentences and the word given. Which words in the second sentence also belong to the first sentence? Answer: David, and and Jane
  • Words we have left to modify don’t, have, a, good and relationship.

Step 2 – Grammar Analysis

  • Word order in English: subject + verb + object. The subject is “David and Jane”. So, the subject will be followed by a verb.
  • Is the first sentence in the present, past or future?
  • Is the first sentence negative or positive?
  • Given that the first sentence is negative we will need to negate the second sentence. In English, we use the auxiliary verb “to do” to negate ordinary verbs. “Get” is an ordinary verb (non-auxiliary verb).
  • The subject is plural (two people) and we need the present simple form (first sentence is in the present) of the verb “do” in third person plural, which is don’t (remember we need its negative form).
  • “Don’t” can now be followed by an ordinary verb, the verb given, get.
  • This is the hard part. As you can see, you’re going to need a phrasal verb that means “have a good relationship with” Generally, phrasal verbs are irregular and there’s no telling as to how to obtain it. Usually, It’s a question of learning phrasal verbs by memory.
  • Phrasal verbs are composed of a verb (in this case, get) and a preposition or adverb. You know that you’re going to need either an adverb or preposition to form the phrasal verb to mean “have a good relationship with”. I.e. I get ____ with her.
  • The two possible options are on or along. Both are acceptable. I.e. Jake gets along/on with Maria.

Cambridge First – Tutorial

27.  He should book his tickets as soon as possible.

OUGHT

His tickets _______________ as soon as possible.

Step 1

  • Read the two sentences and the word given. Which words in the second sentence also belong to the first sentence? Answer: as, soon, as, possible, his and tickets.
  • Words we have left to modify he, should and book.

Step 2 – Grammar Analysis

  • “He” is the subject of the first sentence and “tickets” is the object.
  • In the first sentence, the object tickets is now the subject of the second sentence. When the subject and object are reversed this usually means you’ll need a passive construction.
  • Is the first sentence in the past, present of future?
  • Is the first sentence negative or positive?
  • Given that the first sentence is in the present and positive we will need to insert a verb after the subject (tickets). That verb is a modal auxiliary verb and the word given, ought. Remember, after a subject you usually need a verb.
  • We have the subject “his tickets”, which is now followed by the auxiliary verb “ought to”. The auxiliary verbs ought to, dare to and need to are exceptions in that they require the preposition to. So, don’t forget to insert the preposition.
  • Given that we know this is going to be a passive construction which auxiliary verb should we use?
  • I hope you said “be”.
  • Now, which verb in the first sentence still needs to be utilised? There’s only one left. “Book”.
  • Do we use the infinitive book, or the past participle booked when we are using the passive voice? The answer is, we use the past participle, that is, booked.

Cambridge First

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