Key word transformations – snippet from our course “Cambridge First”
First, read the text. Then, for questions 25-30 complete the second sentence so that it is very similar or synonymous to the first sentence. You are not allowed to change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. The first example has been done for you. Let’s get started on key word transformations!
To complete this exercise correctly you need to follow our method. We are going to apply an inductive approach, that is, an approach or method that induces you to the answer by eliminating all the other incorrect answers. We use two fundamental steps to help you complete the second sentence:
- Read the second sentence. If there are words in the second sentence that also belong to the first sentence, then, omit those words in the first sentence. You no longer need them (by doing this, there will be fewer words that we need to modify).
- Grammar Analysis.
With regard to step 2 (Grammar Analysis), don’t worry if you don’t know all the grammar, because, in the exam, you will only be required to know the basics to complete the second sentence. Nevertheless, we are going to help you through this process so that you will be able to do the basics.
0. What type of sports do you like to play the most?
What ____________________ sport?
Example: is your favourite
In the exam, you must write the missing words in CAPITAL LETTERS on the separate answer sheet.
- Read the two sentences and the word given. Which words in the second sentence also belong to the first sentence? Answer: “what” and “sport”. So omit these words from the first sentence like this:
Whattype of sportsdo you like to play the most? (It doesn’t matter if the words do not match exactly).
- Words we have left to modify: type, of, do, you, like, to, play, the, most, favourite (word given).
Step 2 – Grammar Analysis
- Word given is favourite. “Favourite” = adjective. There’s generally only one auxiliary verb used with adjectives which we use to make sentences attributable: to be.
- The first sentence is in the present simple, so we will need the present simple.
- Typical sentence structure in English is: subject + verb + object. “What” is the subject, and it will be followed by a verb.
- “Favourite” is an adjective. And we know we need the verb “to be” in the third person singular (am/is(are) because the noun “sport” is singular. We need “is”.
- The word “sports” belongs to the recipient (the person being asked the question), therefore we need a possessive adjective in second person to “possess” sports. That possessive adjective is “your”.
- “Sport” in the second sentence is a noun. What modifies a noun? An adjective. “Favourite” is an adjective and must precede the noun.
- Reread both sentences to make sure they:
- Have the same meaning.
- Are grammatically correct.
- You use between two and five words to complete the second sentence.
Modal auxiliary verbs:
- Articles (an/an, the, zero article)
- Pronouns: subject, object and possessive
- Question tags
- English conditionals
- Interrogatives in English
- Phrasal verbs
- Prefixes and suffixes
- Reported and direct speech
- Punctuation: apostrophes, colons, semi-colons, commas, dashes, full stops, question marks, exclamation marks, and quotation marks
- Numbers: cardinal, ordinal, and Roman numbers
- The verb: “get”
- ‘Get’ vs. ‘go’ and ‘got’ vs. ‘gotten’
- Copular verbs
- Cleft sentences
- Subjunctive in English
- Vulgar and taboo in English
- Split infinitive
- Emphasis with inversion
- Gerunds in English
- To + infinitive
- Bare infinitive
- British and American spelling