Interrogatives in English
What are interrogatives? We use interrogatives to ask questions, they are essentially questions words and they come in different types of speech: adjectives whose forms are; whose, what and which; adverbs (why, where, how and when); pronouns ( who, which, whom, what and whose). Obviously, some of them can take two or more different functions (parts of speech), but they will always retain their interrogative nature because they are interrogatives. Full elaboration underneath.
By definition; having the form or force of a question -Merriam Webster
Interrogative adjectives; whose, what and which. link here: Interrogative adjectives
- Whose dog is that? It is his.
- What are you doing Sam?
- Which station would you?
‘Which’ or ‘what’?
Both are possible with little to no difference in meaning, only that ‘which’ has more nuances denoting specificity. ie. when you want to make a choice between two or more things or people, ‘which’ is preferable.
Interrogative adverbs; why, where, how and when. Link here: Interrogative adverbs
- Why does Paris seem so beautiful?
- Where on earth did you find that?
- How do you expect us to know how to get to Beijing.
- When does your plane leave for Japan?
Interrogative pronouns; who, which, whom, what and whose. (Remember, they are called ‘interrogative pronouns’ because they replace the noun)
- Who emailed you last night? (‘who’ refers to a person here, thus it is both an interrogative pronoun and adjective).
- Which flight will you take tonight? (both interrogative pronoun and adjective).
- Whom has he mailed? (‘whom’ is becoming less and less unused, and replaced with ‘who’. The correct form, however, is ‘whom’ because it references to the object in the sentence while ‘who’ references to the subject). (in this context).
- What do you know about our company? (both an interrogative pronoun and adjective.
- Whose clothes are those lying on the floor? They are Peter’s. (Both interrogative pronoun and adjective).
Who vs. whom
Who = subject in the sentence
- Who runs this shop? Jim runs this shop. (‘Jim‘ is the subject, hence ‘who’).
- Who lives here? I live here. (‘I‘ is the subject, hence ‘who’).
Whom = object in the sentence
- Whom did Jeffrey work for? He worked for George. (‘George’ is the object of the sentence, hence ‘whom’).
- Whom did the boss select? He selected the best candidate. (‘candidate’ is the object of the sentence, hence ‘whom’).
‘Whom’ is becoming increasingly less used in modern culture, but it is still considered the correct interrogative when referring to the object.