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To have — Verbo Auxiliar

to have verbo auxiliar

To Have es un verbo auxiliar que usamos para ayudar a verbos normales (verbos que no son verbos auxiliares como talk, write, speak, etc. Usamos principalmente el verbo auxiliar to have para formar las formas perfectas, por ejemplo, el presente perfecto, pasado perfecto, etc. También usamos to have para expresar obligación, hablar de la posesión y hablar de acciones y experiencias.

To have, sus conjugaciones

  • Forma base = to have
  • Forma presente = have/has
  • Forma pasada = had
  • Participio presente = having
  • Participio pasado = had

Se usa to have para hacer todas las formas del tiempo perfecto

Se utiliza para formar lo que llamamos tiempos “perfectos” en inglés. Las formas del tiempo perfecto:  

El presente perfecto

(Have/has + participio pasado).

  • He has been to the mall.
  • I haven’t seen her for ages.
  • David has left for France.

El pasado perfecto

(Had + participio pasado). 

  • She had left the office before 18:00.
  • Had you taken your books to work yesterday before arriving?
  • They had been in traffic for ten hours before they managed to arrive home.

El presente perfecto continuo

(Have/has + been + verbo + –ing). 

  • She’s been speaking to me for an hour on the phone. I’m exhausted…
  • How long have you been living in the United States?
  • I’ve been speaking French my whole life.

El pasado perfecto continuo

(Had + been + verbo + -ing). 

  • We had been driving for fifteen hours straight last week.
  • Had you been emailing her when I saw you on Tuesday?
  • My friends at school had been acting quite rude when I saw them last week.

El futuro perfecto

(Will/shall + have + participio pasado). 

  • My aunty shall have arrived at the airport at five o’clock tonight.
  • They won’t have spoken a word of English when they wake up tonight.
  • When I get to the city centre I’ll have run out of petrol.

El futuro perfecto continuo

(Will/shall + have + been + verbo + -ing). 

  • Will we have been sleeping for thirteen hours by the time we get to Sydney?
  • I shall have been living in Scotland for eight years by 2025.
  • He’ll have been talking on his phone for nearly three hours by the time we finally get to our destination.
Presente perfecto (have/has + participio pasado) Sophie has slept well.
I’ve worked today.
Pasado perfecto (had + participio pasado) James had left the office before his boss arrived.
We hadn’t seen them before Friday.
Presente perfecto continuo (have/has + been + verbo + –ing) They’ve been working on their project for three years now.
Katie and Lewis have been studying hard for their exam this week.
Pasado perfecto continuo (had + been + verbo + –ing) I hadn’t been working last night before you saw me.
I hope she had been messaging me before I called her.
Futuro perfecto (will + have + participio pasado) I won’t have been to the city centre before the end of this year. William will have travelled to Barcelona by the end of this year.
Futuro perfecto continuo (will + have + been + verbo + –ing) We’ll have been living in San Diego for eight years by next year.
I’ll have been living in Japan for one whole year by the end of December.

To have se usa para mostrar posesión de objetos, relaciones, estados etc.

Se usa para indicar la posesión de cosas, personas y relaciones.

  • I have a friend who lives in Spain.
  • She has a new car.
  • She has a girlfriend.

To have se usa para hablar sobre las experiencias y acciones

  • The lady is having a beer with us tonight.
  • They’re having a shower now.
  • He has a lot of work to do.

Se usa con ‘to + infinitivo’ para expresar una obligación

  • James has to clean the garage by 18h tonight.
  • Maria has to learn English.
  • He still has to learn a lot.

¿Have o have got?

Nótese que, no usamos ‘to do’ en preguntas y negaciones con ‘got’, el pretérito simple y participio de ‘get’

  • She has got herself a brand-new house.
  • Today Ive got an appointment with him.
  • I‘ve got three new toys.

Do have vs. have got

Para hacer preguntas con el verbo ‘to have’, es correcto usar tanto ‘do’ (+ sujeto) + have o la otra forma ‘have (+sujeto) + got’. La connotación de la forma elegida puede, no obstante, cambiar con el dialecto.

  • Do you have band practice on Tuesday nights?
  • Has she got a big house?

Mientras que en el inglés americano, solo la forma ‘do have’ se usa en ambos significados.

No obstante, en el inglés británico actual, se usa cada vez más a menudo ‘have got’ a causa de la gran influencia del inglés americano.

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