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Futuro perfecto

Futuro perfecto construcción: will/shall + have + participio pasado (shown,seen)

Verbo ejemplar: listen

I will have listened   We will have listened
You will have listened You (guys) will have listened
He/she/it will have listened   They will have listened
(1) Usamos el futuro perfecto para decir que una acción será acabada en un tiempo específico en el futuro.
  • By 2020 I will have travelled to New Zealand.
  • She will have left her country to go abroad by next year.
  • By next month they all will have received their promotion.
  • Next school year coming She’ll have learned/learnt how to drive.
(2) Usamos el futuro perfecto continuo para hablar acerca de algo que continuará hasta otra acción en el futuro.
  • We will have been here for eight months when he arrives.
  • They shall have been with that shop for years by next Thursday.
  • Susana will have lived in Madrid for two years by next March when her friend arrives.
(3) Nótese que podemos utilizar la forma ‘be going to’ + have + participio pasado’ como un sustituto para la forma ‘will + have + participio’ como un tiempo Futuro Perfecto. ‘Am/is/are + going + to + have + past participle’:
  • She is going to have lived in Paris for eight years by next December.
  • am going to have learned six languages if I continue my studying at this rate.

Verbos en Inglés – Guía Completa

Lección #25: Futuro perfecto

Explicación

Construcción: will/shall + have + participio pasado (lived, spoken, listened, closed)  

Verbo de ejemplo: to text

  I will have texted     We will have texted
You will have texted You (guys) will have texted
  He/she/it will have texted     They will have texted
  • El futuro perfecto se utiliza para decir que una acción se completará en un momento específico en el futuro.
  • Usamos el futuro perfecto para hablar de algo que continuará hasta que ocurra otra acción en el futuro.
  • Nótese que podemos usar la forma ‘be going to + have + participio pasado’ como sustituta de ‘will + have + participio pasado’ como futuro perfecto.  
Contexto

(At university)

  • What do you want to do when you leave school, Judith?
  • I want to become an engineer.
  • Sounds like hard work. How long do you expect to be at university for?1
  • Well, by next year I will have been at university for four years,2 and it’s going to be3 another two years before I graduate.
  • Six years! You’re going to have been at school4 for a hell of a long time.5 This is my last year, although I’m studying linguistics which is probably not quite as hard as6 engineering, for sure.
  • I’m aware that, by the time I graduate, it’ll have been a long time,7 but working8 as a civil engineer is what I have always wanted.9
  • So, do you reckon you’ll have got10 a job in the construction sector just after you graduate?
  • I’m fairly confident I will, yes.
  • Good luck to you.
  • Thanks.
  • Catch you later.
  • Bye.
Análisis
  1. How long do you expect to be at university for? La preposición en esta pregunta, ‘for’, puede ir al final o al principio. I.e., For how long do you expect to be at university?
  2. By next year I will have been at university for four years. El futuro perfecto ‘will have been’ se está utilizando para especificar una experiencia ‘at university’ que se completará en un momento en el futuro.
  3. It’s going to be. La forma ‘be going to’ también es intercambiable con el futuro simple ‘will’. I.e., It will be.
  4. You’re going to have been at school. La forma ‘be going to + have + participio pasado’ es exactamente lo mismo que ‘will + have + been’. I.e., You’ll have been at school…
  5. For a hell of a long time. La expresión ‘hell of a’ es bastante común y se utiliza con el significado de ‘a lot of’. I.e., That’s a hell of a lot of lollies. A hell of a lot of money.
  6. I’m studying linguistics, which is probably not quite as hard as engineering, for sure. La construcción ‘as + adjective + as’ se usa para hacer dos cosas o personas igualmente comparables. I.e., She’s as nice as me. I’m as tall as my father.
  7. I’m aware that, by the time I graduate, it’ll have been a long time. El futuro perfecto, ‘it’ll have been’, se utiliza aquí para hablar de algo que continuará hasta que se produzca otra acción en el futuro.
  8. But working. La forma de gerundio de ‘work’ es ‘working’ y aquí se está usando como el sujeto de la frase. Los gerundios se pueden utilizar como sujetos y objetos de frases y preguntas en inglés. I.e., I like swimming. Running is fun.
  9. But workingas a civil engineer is what I have always wanted. El presente perfecto, ‘I have always wanted’, se está utilizando aquí porque la experiencia de ‘wanting’, debido a su naturaleza, continúa hasta el momento presente. Por lo tanto, se usa el presente perfecto y no el pasado simple.
  10. So, do you reckon you’ll have gota job… Dato curioso: en inglés británico, el participio pasado de ‘get’ es ‘got’, mientras que en inglés americano el participio pasado es ‘gotten’. Inglés británico: get – got – got. Inglés americano: get – got – gotten.

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