Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Elipsis

¿Qué es la elipsis en inglés exactamente? Según la RAE: ”omisión de un segmento sintáctico cuyo contendido se puede recuperar por el contexto” ej., en ‘Juan estudia biología y María (estudia) matemáticas’. En inglés cotidiano, es bastante frecuente omitir palabras porque asumimos que el significado ya se entiende sin tener que decirlas. Esto se llama ‘elipsis’. Las palabras que omitimos son normalmente superfluas y la persona a quien hablamos (el receptor) ya entiende lo que queremos decirle.

(1) Se usa el elipsis al comienzo de una frase, que es su forma más común. Palabras muy cotidianas que pueden sobrar son: artículos (a/an, the), posesivos (my, his etc.), pronombres personales (I, you, he, she etc.) y verbos auxiliares (have, be, do etc).  
  • Boss isn’t here. = The boss isn’t here.
  • Guy’s coming over tonight. = The guy’s coming over tonight.
  • Son’s at the office. = My son is at the office.
  • Will leave now, need to get going. = I will leave now, I need to get going.
  • Can’t send the fax. = It (the printer) can’t send the fax.
  • Cautious over the issue we talked about. = Be cautious over the issue we talked about.
(2) La segunda forma más común de elipsis es con la coletilla interrogativa. Haz clic aquí si quieres leer más sobre las coletillas interrogativas:
  • French, are you? = You aren’t French, are you?
  • Leaving so soon are you?= You aren’t leaving so soon, are you?
  • Having a hard time, are you? = You’re not having a hard time, are you?
  • Arrived late, have they? = They haven’t arrived late, have they?
  • See the contract, could you?= You couldn’t see the contract, could you?
(3) Usamos elipsis con los verbos auxiliares, pero principalmente cuando se quiere dar un fuerte significado a la respuesta.
  • Leave me! = Leave me be.
  • She told me she’d come and she did. = She told me she’d come and she did come.  (‘d = would, contracted form). 
  • He told me he would leave, but he hasn’t. = He told me he would leave, but he hasn’t left.
  • Are you getting up? I am! = Are you getting up? I am getting up.
(4) Usamos elipsis con infinitivos, omitiendo su complemento(s) y no usando el infinitivo
  • Is Jill coming today? She doesn’t want to. = She doesn’t want to come today.
  • Can you help me? I’m not able to right now. = I’m not able to help you right now.
  • Can someone give me a hand? I’ll ask John to. = I’ll ask John to give you a hand.
  • Did you bully him? I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to. = I’m sorry, I didn’t mean to bully him.
(5) Se puede utilizar la elipsis en frases nominales cuando el significado as absolutamente claro al receptor.
  • Would you like some? = Would you like some chips (or whatever is being offered)
  • We’re staying at the Hilton. = We’re staying at the Hilton hotel. 
  • I studied at Oxford. = I studied at Oxford University. 
  • Are you going to Jason’s? = Are you going to Jason’s house?
  • She studied at Harvard. = She studied at Harvard university.
(6) Finalmente, la elipsis se usa con mucha frecuencia en inglés con las conjunciones: but, and y or. Usamos este tipo de elipsis tanto en la lengua hablada como la lengua escrita para evitar redundancia.
  • Your plate and his plate are ready. = Your plate is ready and his plate is ready. (¿Ves la redundancia?) Por eso, la elipsis es tan importante.
  • A mouse and keypad. = A mouse and a keypad.
  • He can read, but can’t write. = he can read, but he can’t write.
  • These friends and colleagues of yours. = These friends and those colleagues of yours.
  • Did you mean the English or the Germans? = Did you mean the English people or the German people? (‘people’ es completamente superfluo)

Cuando tu inglés alcance un nivel muy alto, deberías sentirte libre e incentivado a utilizar elipsis, especialmente en la vida cotidiana, en la lengua hablada. Su uso hace que las oraciones sean mucho menos superfluas, y asegura que hables más como un nativo. 

Ver también:

0 Comments

Have any doubts? Leave a comment

Este sitio usa Akismet para reducir el spam. Aprende cómo se procesan los datos de tus comentarios.