Numbers: cardinal, ordinal and Roman numbers
Numbers in English
In English and mathematics, cardinal numbers are the numbers themselves in plain and simple form: 4, 1 15, 1345, 66, 87, 18, 56, 3, etc. These numbers indicate how many elements there are in an assemblage. Generally, it’s best to write the letter form of the number in writing and not the numeral form.
- 76, 86 98, 1034, 54
- I have twenty-five children accompanying me.
- How many pigeons were on the window sill this morning? There were three.
- I know about four guys who can help you.
- He’s thirty-eight years old.
Ordinal numbers are used to designate a place in English, such as; third, second, first, eighth, twenty-first, seventh, one-hundredth, eighty-ninth etc. We use them to show the position of something or someone in a series.
- My brother came first (1st) in the running race.
- I bet him to second (2nd) place.
- I was ninety-ninth (99th) out of one hundred competitors, so not such a bad effort.
- According to my results, I placed twenty-fourth (24th) out of the thirty-three members.
- It’s not always about coming first (1st) place.
- Prizes will be allocated to first (1st), second (2nd) and third (3rd) placed competitors.
In English, we mainly use the standard Arabic numbers for mostly everything and more importantly, mathematics, although we do use Roman numbers also, for things such as; clocks numbers, naming historical events or statues, films, monuments etc. They are still used for historical reasons and they also look very aesthetic and classy.
- I = 1
- V= 5
- X = 10
- L = 50
- C = 100
- D = 500
- M = 1000
Upper case (capital letters) or lower case (small letters) can be used to form the numbers.
Usually, letters are ordered in decline of the order of value, i.e. ‘XV’ = 15 (10+5). Letters can be repeated to increase value, i.e. ‘XX’ = 20, ‘XX’ = 30. Letters cannot be repeated more than three times, so ‘XXXX’ is not used for 40. In this case, ‘XL’ = 40 (50 takeaway 10).
upper-case (capital letter)
lower-case (small letter)
Modal auxiliary verbs:
- Articles (a/an, the, zero article)
- Pronouns: subject, object and possessive
- Question tags
- English conditionals
- Interrogatives in English
- Phrasal verbs
- Prefixes and suffixes
- Reported and direct speech
- Punctuation: apostrophes, colons, semi-colons, commas, dashes, full stops, question marks, exclamation marks, and quotation marks
- The verb: “get”
- ‘Get’ vs. ‘go’ and ‘got’ vs. ‘gotten’
- Copular verbs
- Cleft sentences
- Subjunctive in English
- Vulgar and taboo in English
- Split infinitive
- Emphasis with inversion
- Gerunds in English
- To + infinitive
- Bare infinitive
- British and American spelling